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Jack Russell Terrier
The Jack Russell terrier is a small terrier that has its origins in fox hunting. It is principally white-bodied smooth, rough or broken–coated which is commonly confused with the Parson Russell terrier (the American Kennel Club (AKC) and affiliate variant) and the Russell terrier (a shorter legged, stockier variety) with the term "Jack Russell" commonly misapplied to other small white terriers. The Jack Russell terrier is a broad type, with a size range of 10–15 inches (25–38 cm), the Parson Russell is limited only to a middle range with a standard size of 12–14 inches (30–36 cm), while the Russell terrier is smaller at 8–12 inches (20–30 cm), however each breed has different physical proportions according to the standards of their breed clubs.
The working Jack Russell terrier is a unique terrier which has been preserved in working ability as well as appearance much as it existed over 200 years ago. Originating from the dogs bred and used by Reverend John Russell in the early 19th century from the white terriers of that period, they have similar origins to the modern Fox terrier. The Jack Russell is a high energy breed which relies on a high level of exercise and stimulation, and does not have a great deal of serious health complaints. It has gone through several changes over the centuries, with changes in use and the formation of different conformation show standards by different kennel clubs. Recognition for the breed by kennel clubs has been opposed by the breed's parent societies – something which resulted in the creation and recognition of the Parson Russell terrier. Jack Russells have appeared multiple times in film, television and print with several historical dogs of note.